How small a transistor can be??

Posted on Posted in Tech-'o'-Mania

Hello guyzz!!How are you all?? This time you guyzz gonna find something really amazing and kinda interesting too. In this age of modernization, technology too getting modernized with us as you can find the technical improvised gadgets which are the by-products of the highly innovative minds working out there in the world.


Today, I’m talking about the transistors. By the way, do you guyzz know what a transistor is? It is basically a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electric power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor’s terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.

The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. First conceived by Julius Lilienfeld in 1926 and practically implemented in 1947 by American physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley, the transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among other things. John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and Willaim Shockley shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for their achievement.

As you guyzz read above, the transistors are packaged individually but most are found embedded in integrated circuits. So how small these transistors can be?? Can u make a guess?? Yes, I’m waiting for the answer..

Okk, I know it’s too small to make a correct guess for its size and it’s very difficult to say about its size with the random mind. Let’s assume some objects, it can be smaller than your eraser or thinner than the tip of your pen or it may be thinner than a pin you can say. But can you accept this one that a transistor can be thinner than human hair and not only thinner it is 50,000 times thinner than human hair. Isn’t it amazing??

Berkeley Lab faculty scientist and UC Berkeley professor Ali Javey (left) and graduate student Sujay Desai (Src:

A research team led by faculty scientist Ali Javey at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has created the world’s smallest transistor with a working one-nanometer gate, about 50,000 times thinner than human hair. The prototype was built with semi conductor materials called transition metal dichalcogenides, instead of silicon. Interestingly, the laws of physics had set a 5-nanometer limit on the size of transistor gates among conventional semiconductors.

The development could be key to keeping alive Intel co-founder Gordon Moore’s prediction that the density of transistors on integrated circuits would double every two years, enabling the increased performance of our laptops, mobile phones, televisions, and other electronics.

“The semiconductor industry has long assumed that any gate below 5 nanometers wouldn’t work, so anything below that was not even considered,” said study lead author Sujay Desai, a graduate student in Javey’s lab. “This research shows that sub-5-nanometer gates should not be discounted. Industry has been squeezing every last bit of capability out of silicon. By changing the material from silicon to MoS2, we can make a transistor with a gate that is just 1 nanometer in length, and operate it like a switch.”


(Src: Schematic of a transistor with a molybdenum disulfide channel and 1-nanometer carbon nanotube gate.
Schematic of a transistor with a molybdenum disulfide channel and 1-nanometer carbon nanotube gate.

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